Understanding Evolution of Cladonia Lichens through Mitochondrial Genome Analysis

Emerging advances in the field of bryology indicate that some lichens may have prion-degrading capabilities. In this paper, correlations between prion-degrading properties and genetic differences were investigated in Cladonia lichens, with special emphasis on C. rangiferina, a prion-degrading lichen sometimes called “reindeer lichen.” Using multiple-sequence alignment and pairwise sequence alignment, six mitochondrial Cladonia genomes were analyzed for genomic congruency and phylogeny. We found that the C. rangiferina mitochondrion was not significantly genomically different from other Cladonia lichen mitochondria, nor were any phylogenetic anomalies found that might explain its prion-degrading properties.

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Serratia, Mi Encanto: How Biological Control Agents Can Mitigate Colombia’s P. cinnamomi Crisis

In Disney’s new film Encanto, Colombian singer Carlos Vives describes Colombia as a paradise. “Todos llegan para gozar,” he sings–everyone comes to enjoy Colombia’s bounty. Despites its relative prosperity as an upper middle income country, however, Colombia’s development has been lopsided. Its income distribution is heavily weighted towards the top-earning 10% of the population, who, as of 2019, hold 40.3% of the country’s wealth–leaving 42.5% of the population beneath the poverty line and 15.1% of the population in extreme poverty. Most of this poverty is concentrated in Colombia’s rural districts, whose populations mainly comprise small subsistence farmers. This places Colombia at seventh in the world for income inequality.

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